In each field experiment the set of proper sensors will be installed for soil characteristics and parameters. The following data will be collected and documented:
- soil data (TDR-sensors; volumteric sensors, temperature and bulk electrical conductivity, geo-referenced apparent electrical conductivity - mobile EM-38 Geonoix system),
- crop physiological and phenology data (leaf area index, rooting depth, dry matter, biomass C/N ratio).
Geographical Information System will be applied and developed for experimental stations. The system will be unified for spatial information (maps of soil properties, yields, farm’s structure), databases and management. Moreover, it will be extended by an internet interface dedicated for interactive input information, gathered by researchers and managers during field’s surveys, monitoring or manager’ practices – data will be transferred directly to the database server.
IUNG-PIB is conducting soil properties analysis in all Experimental Farms for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and Soil Organic Matter content. The data are necessary for nutrients balance performance on a farm and the assessment of Soil Organic Matter in soils cultivated in different systems.
Moreover, IA-PAN is collecting soil samples at the depths of 5, 15, 30, 50 and 70 cm using soil cylinders to measure soil hydro-physical properties (retention curve, hydraulic conductivity in the saturated and unsaturated zone) and also in disturbed conditions to measure such properties as granulometric distribution, bulk density, total porosity, carbon content, and pH. Soil samples are gathered three times per year - in the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the vegetation period.
In the studied soil profiles the TDR probes for the measurement of soil water content, temperature and salinity of the soil is installed at the depths of 5, 15, 30, 50 and 70 cm. Basic features of the TDR device are as follows: accuracy of measurement of moisture: ±2%, salinity: 0.01 S/m, temperature: 0.2°C. At the same layers, the soil material is also collected to conduct physical and hydro-physical analyses of soil properties, including the soil bulk density, the total porosity, the water retention curve, the coefficient of water conductivity.
Measurement campaigns will be carried out from April to September, at 1 week intervals. The single campaign will be realized from sunrise till late evening. Each single measurement made with a dark and transparent chamber will take about 3-4 minutes and 2-3 minutes, respectively.
In the field experiments planned in the project GHG flux measurements (N2O, CO2/CH4/H2O) will be carried out using closed dynamic chamber system. The single set consists of two chambers (dark and transparent).
System ACE is used to measure CO2 exchange in the soil. Besides CO2 respiration, extra measurements include Photosynthetic Active Radiation, temperature and moisture of the soil.